MongoDB中文手册

Mongodb中的mongoimport工具可以把一个特定格式文件中的内容导入到指定的collection中。该工具可以导入JSON格式数据,也可以导入CSV格式数据。具体使用如下所示:

[[email protected] mongodb]# ./bin/mongoimport --help
options:
  --help                  produce help message
  -v [ --verbose ]        be more verbose (include multiple times for more 
                          verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)
  --version               print the program's version and exit
  -h [ --host ] arg       mongo host to connect to ( <set name>/s1,s2 for sets)
  --port arg              server port. Can also use --host hostname:port
  --ipv6                  enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)
  -u [ --username ] arg   username
  -p [ --password ] arg   password
  --dbpath arg            directly access mongod database files in the given 
                          path, instead of connecting to a mongod  server - 
                          needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used 
                          if a mongod is currently accessing the same path
  --directoryperdb        if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate 
                          directory
  --journal               enable journaling
  -d [ --db ] arg         database to use
  -c [ --collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)
  -f [ --fields ] arg     comma separated list of field names e.g. -f name,age
  --fieldFile arg         file with fields names - 1 per line
  --ignoreBlanks          if given, empty fields in csv and tsv will be ignored
  --type arg              type of file to import.  default: json (json,csv,tsv)
  --file arg              file to import from; if not specified stdin is used
  --drop                  drop collection first 
  --headerline            CSV,TSV only - use first line as headers
  --upsert                insert or update objects that already exist
  --upsertFields arg      comma-separated fields for the query part of the 
                          upsert. You should make sure this is indexed
  --stopOnError           stop importing at first error rather than continuing
  --jsonArray             load a json array, not one item per line. Currently 
                          limited to 4MB.

参数说明:

  • -h:指明数据库宿主机的IP
  • -u:指明数据库的用户名
  • -p:指明数据库的密码
  • -d:指明数据库的名字
  • -c:指明collection的名字
  • -f:指明要导入那些列

示例:先删除students中的数据,并验证

> db.students.remove()
> db.students.find()
> 

然后再导入上面导出的students.dat文件中的内容

[[email protected] mongodb]# ./bin/mongoimport -d test -c students students.dat 
connected to: 127.0.0.1
imported 9 objects
[[email protected] mongodb]# 

参数说明:

  • -d:指明数据库名,本例中为test
  • -c:指明collection名,本例中为students
  • students.dat:导入的文件名
  • 查询students集合中的数据
> db.students.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031143350f2481577ea81e5"), "classid" : 1, "age" : 20, "name" : "kobe" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031144a50f2481577ea81e6"), "classid" : 1, "age" : 23, "name" : "nash" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031145a50f2481577ea81e7"), "classid" : 2, "age" : 18, "name" : "james" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031146a50f2481577ea81e8"), "classid" : 2, "age" : 19, "name" : "wade" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031147450f2481577ea81e9"), "classid" : 2, "age" : 19, "name" : "bosh" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031148650f2481577ea81ea"), "classid" : 2, "age" : 25, "name" : "allen" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5031149b50f2481577ea81eb"), "classid" : 1, "age" : 19, "name" : "howard" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503114a750f2481577ea81ec"), "classid" : 1, "age" : 22, "name" : "paul" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503114cd50f2481577ea81ed"), "classid" : 2, "age" : 24, "name" : "shane" }
> 

证明数据导入成功

上面演示的是导入JSON格式的文件中的内容,如果要导入CSV格式文件中的内容,则需要通过--type参数指定导入格式,具体如下所示:

先删除数据

> db.students.remove()
> db.students.find()
> 

再导入之前导出的students_csv.dat文件

[[email protected] mongodb]# ./bin/mongoimport -d test -c students --type csv --headerline --file students_csv.dat 
connected to: 127.0.0.1
imported 10 objects
[[email protected] mongodb]# 

参数说明:

  • -type:指明要导入的文件格式
  • -headerline:指明第一行是列名,不需要导入
  • -file:指明要导入的文件

查询students集合,验证导入是否成功:

> db.students.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118ad8"), "classid" : 1, "name" : "kobe", "age" : 20 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118ad9"), "classid" : 1, "name" : "nash", "age" : 23 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118ada"), "classid" : 2, "name" : "james", "age" : 18 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118adb"), "classid" : 2, "name" : "wade", "age" : 19 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118adc"), "classid" : 2, "name" : "bosh", "age" : 19 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118add"), "classid" : 2, "name" : "allen", "age" : 25 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118ade"), "classid" : 1, "name" : "howard", "age" : 19 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118adf"), "classid" : 1, "name" : "paul", "age" : 22 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("503266029355c632cd118ae0"), "classid" : 2, "name" : "shane", "age" : 24 }
> 

说明已经导入成功。

MongoDB中文手册